Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Emergence of a Hookup Culture in Contemporary American Culture Essay

The Emergence of a Hookup Culture in Contemporary American Culture - Essay Example One of the components that could have added to the development of the women’s freedom development is the loss of conventional sex jobs in current American culture. While already ladies were restricted to their homes, they were presently picking up acknowledgment in their more prominent jobs for the advancement of the general public, and just because their capacities were not constrained to customary homemaker and youngster raising jobs. There were more ladies found openly doing things that were relied upon to be finished by men, for example, getting a higher education, working in an office, or under open help. These ladies had the option to accomplish something, which likewise gave them the attitude that they can do whatever a man can do, beside the conventional sexual orientation jobs that were doled out to them. Having propelled training opened up the roads for other profession openings, yet this likewise changed what number of ladies see connections, including sex. This mov e from being an at-home individual to being found in broad daylight didn't just give extra profession decisions for ladies, yet in addition extra opportunity seeing someone, regardless of whether sexual or sentimental in nature. Beginning from the 1960’s when the idea of dating was beginning to lose its hang on school culture, the possibility that having cautious sex with others turns into a considerably more rewarding decision for a great many people, particularly ladies since there is no problem of picking between getting secured to a relationship or bearing kids over extending vocations (Bogle 2007: 779). Along these lines of reasoning has made most ladies liberal as far as their sexual opportunity, and it is accepted that the commitment to such practices was defiant in nature, yet in addition helped in spreading the way of life of easygoing sexual experiences since there were numerous individuals who were considerably more receptive about it (Shukusky and Wade 2012: 495). In spite of the way that there has been an expansion in the quantity of ladies participating in easygoing sexual experiences, there has been a watched pattern in the moderate advancement of moving from

Friday, August 21, 2020

Characters in Hamlet Essay

The principal appropriate auditorium as we probably am aware it, was known as the Theater, worked at Shoreditch, London in 1576 and the proprietor was James Burbage. James Burbage had acquired a multi year rent with consent to fabricate the primary playhouse, relevantly named ‘ The Theater ‘. Before this time plays were acted in the patio of motels or hotel yards, or at times, in the places of aristocrats or in outrageous conditions on open ground. After the Theater, further outdoors playhouses ( theaters ) opened in the London territory, including the Rose Theater (1587), and the Hope Theater (1613). The most renowned Elizabethan playhouse ( theater ) was the Globe Theater (1599) Page When Shakespeare began his profession in the theater , there wasn’t a legitimate establishment for showy exhibitions, and organizations played for the most part in the patios of motels, in manors or houses of incredible Lords that welcomed the specialists to perform . Ladies were not permitted to act , being viewed as a somewhat indecent calling for a lady, in this way, the female parts were mimicked by little fellows, with wigs and make-up. There were no unique props or sufficient view, so when an outside scene was required, stage-young men were claiming to be trees or dividers , they conveyed a board with a yellow sun attracted to represent the dawn or a silver moon to show that it was night. For the fight scenes , a couple of ponies were welcomed in front of an audience (by a pony attendant) and for the inward scenes , a table and a few stools were sufficient . Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Henry VIII† denoted a debut in purpose of ensembles and ‘special effects’ however it lead to the sad mishap, as the straw back-stage found fire during a war scene where guns were proposed by methods for flares. No one passed on yet the venue caught fire (having been made of wood , with a stone establishment) . 2 The undertaking to revamp Shakespeare’s Globe was started by the American on-screen character, chief and maker Sam Wanamaker after his first visit to London in 1949. Twenty after one years he established what was to turn into the Shakespeare Globe Trust, committed to the remaking of the theater and the formation of training focus and perpetual show. Following 23 years spent resolutely raising money, propelling investigation into the presence of the first Globe and arranging the recreation with the Trust’s modeler Theo Crosby, Sam Wanamaker passed on in 1993, the site having been made sure about, the presentation undercroft fundamentally complete and a couple of timber inlets of the auditorium set up. Three and a half years after the fact the venue was finished. Shakespeare’s Sources of motivation (ancestors and contemporary specialists) The University Wits Sir Phillip Sidney (30 November 1554 †17 October 1586) got one of the Elizabethan Age’s most conspicuous figures. Celebrated in his day in England as a writer, retainer and fighter, he stays known as the writer of Astrophel and Stella (1581, bar. 1591),inspired by Penelope Devereaux, the future Lady Rich; Shakespeare likewise sorted out his works in sequential request and rendering his genuine experience (The Dark Lady). Christopher Marlowe-was an English screenwriter, writer and interpreter of the Elizabethan period. The preeminent Elizabethan tragedian close to William Shakespeare, he is known for his clear stanza, his overextending heroes, and his own strange and awkward death(Marlowe is frequently asserted to have been an administration spy). Marlowe’s first play performed in front of an audience in London stage was Tamburlaine (1587) about the champion Timur, who ascends from shepherd to warrior. It is among the primary English plays in clear section. From this play, Shakespeare obtained the prime example of the usurper, making extraordinary figures of usurpers in his own plays, just making a decision about their blame, and, thus , their discipline, as per the heaviness of their deeds: - Richard III and Claudius( ‘Hamlet’) are malicious from the earliest starting point , they don't atone , so , they are given a savage passing †Henry IV apologizes on his demise bed , giving insightful encourage to his child, the future Henry V , who is to turn into a perfect lord, and he kicks the bucket because of fight wound . †Macbeth is progressively a survivor of his wife’s aspiration, demonstrating shortcoming , and , along these lines, the two of them lose their brain. The Jew of Malta, about a Maltese Jew’s uncouth vengeance against the city specialists, has a preamble conveyed by a character speaking to Machiavelli. The play is known for its unsympathetic depiction of about the entirety of its characters. From this play Shakespeare obtained the savvy Jew , however in his plot Shylock (his Jewish vendor) isn't permitted to incorporate his underhanded plans. A typical misguided judgment about Marlowe, in light of upon Doctor Faustus, is that he himself was a defender of the ‘dark arts’. It is surely evident, when one considers the previously mentioned play, that Marlowe had examined spell ceremonies, however whether he rehearsed them is another issue altogether. From this play , Shakespeare took controlling the powers of nature , getting the force by methods for information and applied it in â€Å"The Tempest†. Thomas Kyd-was an English producer, the creator of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most significant figures in the advancement of Elizabethan dramatization. Shakespeare took in the structure of a catastrophe , rendering the possibility of retribution and transforming into a complex ,philosophical one, â€Å"Hamlet† . John Lyly-was an English essayist, most popular for his books Euphues, The Anatomy of Wit and Euphues and His England. Lyly’s phonetic style is known as Euphuism. Shakespeare ridiculed at this exceedingly allegorical style in his â€Å"Love’s Labour’s Lost† . The Sonnets Shakespeare composed 154 works organized in very nearly a sequential request : the initial 126 are devoted to FRIENDSHIP , while from 127 †154 they talk about a puzzling ‘Dark Lady’ and are committed to ‘PASSION’. The two sentiments are both called ‘ love’ in the works yet there is an obvious qualification made between ‘Friendship’ which is depicted as an enduring, strong inclination dependent on deference , common interests and steadfastness( ‘ the ever fixed imprint/that looks on storm and is never shaken’-poem 116), while enthusiasm is portrayed as a transient, tormenting feeling dependent on physical fascination . The companion to whom the initial 126 works are committed is the Earl of Southampton, Shakespeare’s companion and benefactor of expressions. In his home , Shakespeare got to know the Italian poem, music and painting , just as crafted by his contemporary playwrights and writers Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Kyd and John Lyly. Talk says it that the presence of the Dark Lady ruined their relationship because of envy and doubt . The design of the time (and even these days, regularly) the affection for the dearest lady was depicted in hopeful terms, frequently widely allegorical , contrasting her and a Goddess or with the ideal components of nature . Shakespeare makes the picture of the Dark Lady by resistance to the trendy flawless picture (‘My mistress’s eyes are not at all like the child/Coral is undeniably more red than her lips red’†¦-piece 130) attempting to show that the dearest individual doesn't need to be the exemplification of flawlessness with the goal that your emotions ought to be valid and interesting. Poem 18 ‘ Shall I contrast thee with a summer’s day? Thou craftsmanship all the more flawless and progressively mild. Unpleasant breezes do shake the sweetheart buds of May, And summer’s rent hath very short a date. At some point too blistering the eye of paradise sparkles, And frequently is his gold appearance diminished; And each reasonable from reasonable at some point decreases, By some coincidence, or nature’s evolving course, untrimmed: But thy everlasting summer will not blur Nor lose ownership of that reasonable thou ow’st, Nor will Death boast thou wand’rest in his shade When in interminable lines to time thou grow’st. Inasmuch as men can inhale or eyes can see, So long carries on with this, and this offers life to thee. ‘ Page 4 The initial line offers a basic explanatory conversation starter which the remainder of the poem answers. The artist analyzes his companion to a summer’s day(as nature was viewed as great) and sees him as â€Å"more beautiful and more temperate†, progressively adjusted (the term ‘ temperate’ was picked to be fitting to both human and common world) since summer is spoiled by intermittent breezes and the possible difference in season. While summer should consistently reach a conclusion, the poet’s affections for his companion are endless. Also, his craft may even make their kinship last past death ( the representation in â€Å"thy endless summer will not fade,† represents the everlasting youth and magnificence of his companion in his heart). The poet’s love is incredible to such an extent that even passing can't shorten it. (‘ Nor will Death gloat thou ponders in his shade/When in endless lines to time thou growst’)The poet’s emotions live on for people in the future to appreciate through the intensity of the composed word †through the piece itself. The last couplet clarifies that the beloved’s â€Å"eternal summer† will proceed as long as there are individuals alive to peruse this poem: So long as men can inhale or eyes can see, So long carries on with this, and this offers life to thee. Work 130 My mistress’ eyes are not at all like the sun; Coral is unmistakably more red than her lips’ red; If snow be white, why then her bosoms are dun; If hairs be wires, dark wires develop on her head. I have seen roses damask’d, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in certain aromas is there more enjoyment Than in the breath that from my fancy woman stinks. I love to hear her talk, yet well I realize That music hath an unquestionably additionally satisfying sound;

Strategic Thinking for Wal-Mart business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Vital Thinking for Wal-Mart business - Essay Example As indicated by Altier (1991, p.21), â€Å"to make due in tomorrow’s progressively serious world, organizations will embrace a business as usual that is coming to be known as key thinking.† Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is one of those effective ventures that are utilizing vital deduction to accomplish upper hand inside the retailing business. As per a retail advisor Patricia Pao, â€Å"in fruitful retailing, it’s generally 10% of a good thought and 90% execution, yet at Wal-Mart 90% goes into vital reasoning and simply 10% execution at the store level† (refered to in Gogoi, n.d.). The central purpose of this paper is to look at and investigate the job and effect of vital speculation for the serious choices of Wal-Mart. 2.0 Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Wal-Mart is one of the fruitful retailers as far as deals volume, income, and piece of the overall industry. This 40-year old organization was established by Sam Walton in 1962, and it overwhelmed the neighborhood market of the United States and different nations. Wal-Mart started to exchange the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker image NYSE: WMT and got one of the most solid stocks since its speculation chance isn't disturbing. The business is working all inclusive, and its top rivals incorporate Target Corporation, Costco Wholesale, and Carrefour. Wal-Mart net deals in 2008 ($373.8), 2009 ($401.1) and 2010 ($405.0) are developing at lower rates, and its arrival on speculation (ROI) isn't changing nor developing at 19.3% (Walmart 2010 Annual Report, n.d.a). These figures just demonstrate that Wal-Mart’s execution in the previous years is battling brought about by ineffectual plans and procedures. Beside inside imperfections, the slow development can likewise be ascribed to outer components, for example, exceptional rivalry (nearby and universal) and financial flimsiness brought about by downturn. As Wal-Mart’s life cycle gets into the development stage, the quantity of amazing cont enders has expanded in light of the fact that the pace of deals and benefits are high; in any case, the general development of the business is at a moderate paced way. Cost at this level is lesser on account of extension and scale economies, yet special exercises should be inspired to make clients progressively proficient about the item and administration contributions. Indeed, Wal-Mart officials have multiplied their promoting costs this year just to arrive at a general gathering of buyers (Martin, 2011). Moreover, Wal-Mart has encountered the most serious rivalry, which thus has brought down its deals and piece of the overall industry. Be that as it may, it stayed as the world’s biggest enterprise dependent on the Global 500 and Fortune 500 yearly positioning in spite of poor deals and piece of the pie (DuBois, 2011). Likewise, it is additionally perceived as the most respected organization since it delivered a wide assortment of item and administrations, greatest assistanc e to clients, and offered the least costs of retail products. â€Å"CEO Bill Simon has unreservedly admitted to Wal-Mart’s slips up before, which included rashly evacuating gainful items, excessively forceful rollbacks, and poor associations with merchants† (Sun, 2010). Accordingly, to recover its piece of the overall industry and high record deals, administrators have focused on looking for and growing new methodologies through vital reasoning. They return to the essential, yet this time they are progressively perceptive to their condition and transform into an out-of-the container mastermind. They have assembled so a lot

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

The Self-Serving Bias - Definition, Research, and Antidotes

The Self-Serving Bias - Definition, Research, and Antidotes WHAT IS SELF-SERVING BIAS?The self-serving bias refers to the common habit of people taking credit for positive outcomes or events, though blame outside factors for negative outcomes.This seems to be related to culture, age, clinical diagnosis. This also tends to occur across widely across populations around the world.METHODSLaboratory TestingInvestigations surrounding self-serving bias in the laboratory are different from experimental goals, but they still have fundamental aspects.Over here, participants perform tasks that are often of social sensitivity, intelligence, therapy or teaching skills.The participants can be asked to work in groups, pairs or even alone.Once their tasks have been completed, they are given random fabricated feedback.Some studies make use of emotion-induction mechanisms to investigate moderating effects on the self-serving bias.Then lastly, participants make attributions for the given outcomes.These attributions are then evaluated by researchers to determine implications for the self-serving bias.Neural ExperimentationNeural experimentation is a more modern testing procedure that is used in place of the fundamental self-serving bias laboratory ones.Electroencephalography (EEG), as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), investigate the neural correlates of the self-serving bias.These procedures provide insight into brain area activity during the exhibition of a self-serving bias, as well as a mechanism to differentiate brain activity between clinical and healthy populations.Naturalistic InvestigationRetrospective performance outcomes are used to investigate the self-serving bias.One example of this is reported company performance that is accompanied by self-report of outcome attributions.The self-report attributions can then be used to evaluate how failures and successes are viewed by company employers and employees.This procedure is used for various outcome variables to identify the presence of or absence of the self-ser ving bias.FACTORS AND VARIABLESLocus of ControlThe locus of control (LOC) concept addresses an individual’s belief system about the causes of events, and the accompanying attributions.There are two types of LOC, which are internal and external.When someone has an internal LOC, they will attribute their success to their own hard work, effort, and persistence.And if they have an external LOC, they will assign the success that comes to them to luck, chance or anything other than what they have done.People with internal LOC are more likely to show a self-serving bias, especially when it concerns achievements.GenderIn self-report surveys that investigate partner interactions of romantic couples, men often tended to assign negative interactions to their partners than women did.This seems to indicate that men might exhibit the self-serving bias more than women, although the study did not account for positive interaction attributes.In a 2004 meta-analysis reveals that while numerous studi es have examined gender differences in the self-serving bias, it is quite hard to get a clear view of it.It’s not because mixed results have been witnessed in sex differences in attributions, but that researchers have found that self-serving bias depends on the age of the person and whether they are looking assigning successes or failures.AgeSelf-serving bias is known to change with time in people.Though it may be less prevalent with older adults as they have shown to make more internal causal attributions for negative outcomes.Older adults are also likely to have a reduced positivity bias (which is the tendency to judge positive traits as being more accurate.Older adults who have attributed negative outcomes to more internal factors have also rated themselves to be in poorer health.Therefore, negative emotional aspects may confuse the found age effects.Self-Esteem and EmotionEmotions can impact feelings of self-esteem, which then alters the need to protect one’s self-identity.P eople with high self-esteem are believed to have more to safeguard their self-image, and thus exhibit the self-serving bias more often than their low-esteem counterparts.In one study by Martin D Coleman, participants who were induced to feel emotions of revulsion or guilt were less likely to make self-serving attributions for success and make self-protecting attributions for failure.Coleman revealed that both emotions of guilt and revulsion lead to a reduction in self-esteem, as well as a reduction in the self-serving bias.RoleSelf-serving bias investigations distinguish between the role of participants as actors of a specific task or observers of someone else performing that task, which is related to actor-observer asymmetry.Actors of a particular task show the self-serving bias in their attributions to their own failure or success feedback, whereas observers don’t make the same attributions about the task outcome of another person.That’s because observers tend to be more objec tive in ascribing internal or external attributions of people’s outcomes.It could be due to the fact that the self-image of actors is challenged directly and thus actors feel the need to protect their own self-image, but don’t have the same desire to do so when the self-image of others is threatened.Self-Awareness and the Probability of ImprovementThe relationship between individuals’ perceived probability and awareness levels of improvement also results in the activation of the self-serving bias.People with high self-awareness attribute failure internally when they perceive a high probability of improvement.But they will engage in self-serving bias, as in, attribute failure externally when they perceive a low probability of improvement and people with low awareness will attribute failure externally no matter what their perceived probability of improvement is.EXAMPLES Self-serving bias occurs in a variety of situations across ages, genders, cultures, and others.For instance:A student gets an excellent score on his test and congratulates herself for the hard work he put into studying. But when he gets a terrible score on another test, he puts the blame on the teacher for making the test hard for him to do well or that the teacher just hates him.Athletes who win a game assign their victory to their hard work and practice. But when they lose the next week, the blame their loss on the referee’s flawed decision.A person applying for a job believes he got hired due to his educational qualifications, accolades and splendid interview. And the reason he thinks he was ejected from his previous job opening was that the interviewer didn’t like him.Those with low self-esteem or depression may invert the self-serving bias.This means they will attribute negative outcomes on what they did and positive outcomes to luck or something someone else did.SELF-SERVING BIAS EXPERIMENTSThere have been several experiments conducted to study self-serving bias.In a 2011 study, a group of undergraduate students filled out an online test, experienced an emotional induction, got feedback on their tests, and then made an attribution on their performance.The examiner found that certain emotions contributed to the self-serving bias.A 2003 study was conducted to look into the neural basis of self-serving bias by using imaging studies, notably a fMRI.It was discovered that the dorsal striatum which is found to operate in motor activities that share cognitive activities controls the self-serving bias.MOTIVATIONS FOR THE BIASIt is assumed that there are two motivations for using the self-serving bias: self-enhancement and self-presentation.Self-EnhancementSelf-enhancement describes a person’s motivation to either sustain or enhance their sense of self-worth.With this, a person using self-serving bias would attribute their positive outcomes to themselves and negative things on outside factors would be able to maintain a positive image and self-worth.An example of this would be when you play baseball and get struck out.If you think the umpire called the strikes unfairly and that you got bad pitches, you’re pushing the idea that you’re a good hitter.On the other hand, perceiving yourself being responsible for undesired outcomes reduces your self-worth.There are a number of studies that are consistent with the explanation of self-enhancement.In the case of self-enhancement, people need only show their self-serving bias only for outcomes that are important (like when they have implications for self-worth).Regarding this reasoning, people show even more self-serving bias only for important outcomes instead of those that are considered unimportant.For example, in one study, participants were prompted to be self-serving in their attributions when the test was said to have well-established validity than when it was previously described as new and of undetermined validity.More evidence to support how crucial the role of self-enhancement is in th e self-serving bias comes from cross-cultural research.This research finds cultural differences in the extent to which self-worth is linked to personal accomplishments and outcomes.With regards to Western cultures, self-esteem and identity are closely associated with individual accomplishments.Those from western cultures experience self-worth in response to personal failures.In eastern cultures, however, there is no powerful link between self-worth and individual success.Self-worth and culture are consistent with results that indicate cultural differences in the self-serving bias.Western cultural folk display a stronger self-serving bias than the ones from the eastern cultures.But that’s not to say that the people from eastern cultures don’t show any self-enhancement at all.In fact, meta-analytic research, which collects results from numerous studies, shows that people from eastern cultures display a relatively weaker self-serving bias for their accomplishments and failures than the ones from western cultures.Plus, there is some research that shows that eastern cultural people are more inclined to show a group-serving bias.The group-serving bias refers to the one’s tendency to assign group successes to something internal to the group, like when people say, “we work well together” and have a tendency to assign group failures to something external to the group.There is also evidence that suggests that while people from western cultures are likely to show self-enhancement on behaviors and traits that are well-valued within individualistic cultures, people from eastern cultures usually likely to show self-enhancement on behaviors and traits that are valued within collective cultures.For instance, people from western cultures are more than likely to rate themselves better than average on traits like original, independent, unique and self-reliant than their eastern cultural counterparts.On the other hand, people from eastern cultures are more likely than t heir western counterparts to rate themselves better than average on traits such as compromising, agreeable, loyal and cooperative.And while not directly tested, the implication that people from eastern cultures will showcase the self-serving bias for their personal failures and successes that imply abilities that are particularly valued in Eastern cultures.Self-Presentation Self-presentation refers to the inclination of portraying the desired image of yourself onto others.In other words, it’s about having the desire appear in a certain way to other people around you.That way, the self-serving bias allows us to maintain the image that we try to present to others.Another way to put it is that people claim personal responsibility for successes instead of failures in an effort to influence the thought of others.For instance, if you come off to others as though you have good study habits, you may assign a bad score you got in your test to poorly written questions rather than your incap ability to properly prepare yourself for them.You could also say something like, “I stayed up all night preparing for the test, but the questions were not based on the material that we were given in class.”Be advised that self-presentation is not the same as lying.Others may be convinced that you indeed stayed up all night preparing for the questions, but the thought that you may have studied inefficiently never came to mind.But of course, it can be tricky to try to constantly maintain a desired image.It means that even though taking credit for success can likely enhance your image, you might be perceived as being very boasting if you constantly brag about your success, which could eventually lead to disapproval from others.Still, the negative consequences that result from self-promotion can cause people to present themselves more modestly.For instance, participants in one study got more credit for group success when they believed that their claims would be private than when the y believe that their claims would be revealed to the entire group.Similarly, like those in eastern cultures, who value modesty, participants like to less self-serving bias when attributions are made publicly than when they’re made privately.Further evidence for the self-presentation aspects of the self-serving bias comes from research on socially anxious people.Research experts have proposed that people who are low vs. high in social anxiety have differences in self-presentational style.People with low social anxiety have an acquisitive style that is aimed at enhancing identity and garnering approval.Conversely, people with high social anxiety have a protective, cautious style aimed at avoiding social disapproval and safeguarding their identity.From a self-presentational perspective, self-serving attributions carry a certain amount of risk because audiences may end up challenging the self-serving claims.Therefore, self-serving attributions can come off less appealing and satisfact ory to those who are high in social anxiety.Compared to participants who are low in social anxiety, those who are high in social anxiety took greater responsibility for failure and denied credit for success, especially when they believed they evaluated by experts immediately or when they predicted a retest.HOW TO LIMIT SELF-SERVING BIAS?Should you try and limit self-serving bias?We agree that it might be detrimental to our self-esteem but it could limit our learning as a result.There are plenty of reasons as to why we can have unexpected failure and success, but if you wish to restrict it, then there are ways to do that.One of the ways to limit self-serving bias is recording and recognizing what happened in the past and document the reasons behind your decisions as well as the outcomes that came as a result of those decisions.Think about keeping an investment log.Use it to list down all the times, within reason, envisioned a good outcome in mind but had a bad outcome instead. In one instance, it could have been poor skills and in another, it could have been due to bad luck.Similarly, even though we might have the wrong reasoning, we could have a good outcome which is otherwise known as good luck and we have to acknowledge it.It is also crucial to acknowledge that we have wrong reasoning and a bad outcome that results from that.In that case, we have to accept that we made a mistake and that we can and should learn from those mistakes.So we need to map out the outcomes of the decisions that we take.Other ways to cure self-serving awareness include:Mindful awareness helps: When you realize your common cognitive biases, you will notice that you do them yourself and correct yourself on it.Self-compassion: This is a very useful skill that aids in reducing defensiveness and increase your self-improvement motivation.Rumination: This allows people to think about their problems over and over, without moving ahead.CONCLUSIONIn the end, self-serving bias is normal and ha s a purpose.But if the person ignores their responsibility in negative events, this can impede their learning processes as well as their relationships.

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Baudelaire and the Urban Landscape in ‘The Flowers of Evil’ ‘Landscape’ and ‘The Swan’ - Literature Essay Samples

Charles Baudelaire’s ‘Parisian Scenes’ is as much an exploration into the role of the poet as an illustration of a man’s wanderings through the streets of Paris. The poems ‘Landscape’ and ‘The Swan’ show a definitive evolution in Baudelaire’s perspective, his internal conflict developing alongside his relationship with the city. ‘Landscape’, as an opening poem to the collection, sees an optimistic Baudelaire struggle to find a coexistence between the harmony of the natural world and the constant flux of the rapidly urbanizing environment he finds himself in. It is from this we see the poet move into the city’s bowels in ‘The Swan’ in an attempt to challenge the urban in a more direct manner, though even this seems to provide little comfort, Baudelaire leaving his journey more alienated from his own city than ever before. It is from these poems we can understand the means in which Paris become s a vector through which Baudelaire can explore to what extent the poetry of the city can truly represent his relationship with the urban environment, whilst simultaneously exploring the reality of the modern poet, one of dissatisfaction and chaos. Baudelaire’s interpretation of Paris within ‘Landscape’, as an ethereal fantasy saturated with natural imagery, appears seemingly ideal but unreflective of reality, enabling him to recognize the limitations of this interpretation. He first sees himself in ‘Landscape’ as a watcher from afar, positioned in his ‘attic room’ above the throngs below. This elevated position is representative of his omnipresent nature, surveying ‘all the city’s masts’ and the ‘great magnificent sky’. The close proximity of the urban environment to the natural world, both within the poem and in the narrator’s vision, blends the boundary between the two, the urban landscape coexisting peacefully with nature. Baudelaire goes as far as to profess his desire to write ‘eclogues’, the classical pastoral style of poetry exalting the beauty and simplicity of nature. Nevertheless, Baudelaire recognizes the Paris describ ed cannot truly represent the city below. The poem is centered heavily around an aerial lexis, the narrator gazing at ‘chimney-pipes’, ‘steeples’ and ‘belfries’. He can only view the surface of the city, unable to grasp the magnitude of life below rooftop level. His desire to lie alongside ‘astrologers’ seems particularly apt, an astrologer fated to marvel at distant celestial beings but unable to view the reality of the scene he observes with clarity. This lack of immersion forces the poet to rely on his own mind in the creation of fantastical worlds, building a ‘fairy palace’, ‘conjuring’ the idyllic scenes he sees, ignoring the ‘riot that rages vainly’ against the window pane. The word ‘conjuring’ connotes something insubstantial, an illusion designed to mask the truth. This refusal to confront the city ultimately leaves him dissatisfied, alone in his room ‘transmuting fu rious thoughts’. The anger seething below the seemingly peaceful images of fairytale landscapes and ‘voluptuous delight’ demonstrates the narrator’s dissatisfaction at his current state. However, it is not until the poet is able to depart from this attic room in ‘The Swan’ and immerse himself within the city that he is able to explore accurately his own role as a poet of the urban environment. Descending to the street below, Baudelaire finds his idyll corrupted and discovers the reality of the urban scene, oddly demonstrated through his return to symbolic classical reference. The narrator opens his poem with an invocation to the tragic Andromache and the ‘fraudulent Simois’. These classical references seem out of place in the modern city but are a stark contrast to the celebrated ‘eclogues’ of ‘Landscape’. Here they are classical ruins, accentuated by the reference to the wolf-mother, who raised Romulus and Remus, now forced to nourish the modern age, her orphans in this rendition ‘dry and wasted blooms’ suckling ‘bitter milk’. All beauty has perished: the milk soured and the flowers wilting. The natural imagery of ‘Landscape’ is wholly departed, the flowers decaying alongside the inhabitants of the city. The city he now finds himself in is ‘busy’ and ‘jumbled’, a stark contrast to the city of ‘Landscape’, described as ‘magnificent and vast’. A conflict is brewing within Paris, the street cleaners pushing ‘their storms into the silent air’ suffusing the city with a tension that threatens to break. Paris appears in a state of flux and contrast, Baudelaire caught between the two opposing worlds of ‘Landscape’ and ‘The Swan’. The allegorical torment suffered by the swan, lost within the changing Paris, allows Baudelaire to explore his role in a shifting urban environment and enables him to recognize the torment he has found within himself in. The physical manifestation of the animal itself is symbolic of the poet within the city. When in flight, soaring above the scene, the swan is a sublime image of grace, akin to Baudelaire himself in ‘Landscape’, aloof and all-seeing. However, on earth, all grace is lost, ‘flapping excitedly’ with a ‘convulsive neck’. All apprehension of grandeur has vanished. Although physically free from captivity, the swan is unable to escape its own manufactured alienation and intellectual imprisonment. Much like Baudelaire, who mourns the loss of ‘old Paris’ in favor of the ‘modern Carrousel’, the swan stands aside a ‘dried out ditch’, dislocated and homeless in this new world. The animal itself appears to exist in an oxymoronic state, his ‘white array of feathers in the dirt’, ‘bathing his wings in dust’. All the traditional images of beauty associated with the bird have been tainted, surrounded by an oppressive aridness. This state of chaos within which the swan exists, ‘both ridiculous and sublime’, mirrors that of Paris and the poet himself, torn between the two colliding worlds, at home in neither. Baudelaire’s resolution arrives in the closing stanzas of ‘The Swan’ where, using the theme of exile, the poet begins to channel these feelings of dislocation to voice those whom society has neglected and provide a commentary on the plight of the modern intellectual. His reference to a ‘negress, thin and tubercular’ contributes to this feeling of desolation. An exile similar to himself, she cannot recall her ‘splendid Africa’, obscured as it is by a ‘giant barrier of fog’. She is left to tread her journey, alone and lost in the streets, much like Baudelaire, now entirely dislocated and ill at ease with both the Paris of fantasy and the Paris that lies before him. The truth of the city lies just out of reach, the ‘fog’ both literal and mental. It is from this disorder Baudelaire is able to recognize the impossibility of peaceful coexistence between the two worlds. The poem closes with a heralding ‘full note of the horn’ and a call of camaraderie to the ‘captives, the defeatedmany others more!’ Baudelaire has plunged into the disarray of the Parisian streets and now transcends them, calling upon all the exiles of history, ‘all those who have lost something they may not find’. He moves from the Swan to Andromache to the woman to the ‘sailors left forgotten on an isle,’ a reference to Odysseus and his men trapped upon Circe’s island; a traditional image of those lost and without a homeland. However, this new position of clairvoyance is not one of happiness, the ‘negress’ still ridden with illness, the sailors still trapped, the swan still in ‘endless longing’, but rather the recognition of the inevitability of suffering within the urban landscape. Baudelaire joins a motley group of individuals from whom hope is all but gone, with each, despite their apparent proximity within verse, isolated from the other, each suffering their own personal tribulations. There is no sanctuary or resolution to be found within the poem, rather only a weary acceptance that life within the city is one of unforgiving strife. Baudelaire can clearly see the conflict within himself and the city and is left dissatisfied and dejected, his ‘soul in exile’, finding no place for the Flaneur in this world of constant change. The course of the two poems trace a journey as Baudelaire attempts to reconcile his contending interpretations of Paris. Baudelaire cannot fully accept the tranquility of ‘Landscape’, forcing him from his attic to the city below in an attempt to understand the grotesque reality of the city he inhabits. When neither prove satisfying, the poet turns to himself, desperately trying to find his own place. The Paris Baudelaire finds himself in is a Paris of the widowed like Andromache, the tormented, like the fallen swan, and the lost, like the consumptive ‘negress’. All are exiles, garnered by Baudelaire as symbols of the urban and moral decay around him. From this decay, the city and its inhabitants become vectors through which Baudelaire can face the conflict within himself, split between his opposing personalities. It is not until he is able to accept the innate confusion of urban living and the multi-faceted image that Paris presents, as both a modern city of fervent development and historical site of ancient tradition, that he can find a resolution within himself. Baudelaire is an exile both from the past and present, doomed to wander alone, ultimately finding himself a prisoner of his own mind, his morbid self-awareness his only companion in the face of a rapidly urbanizing city.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Importance Of Improving Leadership Strategies - 972 Words

Improving leadership and school engagement with PP strategies Middle leaders are the driving force of improvement and consistency within schools (Toop, 2013). To ensure that excellence is being maintained throughout all classrooms and to therefore encourage and support new strategies, middle leaders need to be unified and focused, supporting each other with peer-to-peer development (Hargreaves, 2011). It is argued in the IPPR ‘Excellence and Equality’ report (Clifton ed., 2013) that the attainment gap found between students in school, will not be reduced unless there is focus upon a development of outstanding leadership. OFSTED (2014) also posed that the schools making the most significant progress for disadvantaged pupils were those that†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ËœNon-cognitive skills’ is a term used to describe the behaviours, attitudes and strategies that children (or adults) use to approach their time at school (or later in life). These attributes will contribute to the level of motivation, perseverance and sel f-control that a child is able to apply to their school lives (Heckman, et al., 2006). The term non-cognitive skill is a very broad term and could be broken down, though not exclusively, into the following categories: self-concept and metacognitive skills; achievement goals and social skills. Self-Concept and Metacognitive Strategies. Self-concept of ability refers to an opinion formed by a child by their environment about their ability to achieve. Applied to the educational setting, a child may feel that they are unable to push themselves due to negative factors from their home/family lifestyle. Metacognitive strategies refer to the efforts to influence oneself and ability to focus towards a goal. O’Mara et al., (2006) found that intervention could increase a child’s self-concept of ability and increase their chance to fulfill a higher potential or goal. Ensuring all students in the class feel that they are being challenged and that the expectations of them are high will help to build a child self-concept and let students set goals that the would have otherwise shied away from (Sherwood,Show MoreRelatedCultural Leadership Strategies1043 Words   |  5 PagesStrategies and applications of the dynamic cultural leadership models and the omnibus leadership model Introduction With the rapid changes in a health care system around the world, healthcare organizations need to develop strategies that will help the organization to sustain with any difficulties that may arise. Healthcare systems expand their cultural leadership strategies in order to gain a thorough understanding of situations (Johnson, 2009) that will effectively improve their operationsRead MoreEffective Communication Is Appropriate For An Organization1280 Words   |  6 Pagesmeasures to develop appropriate strategies for tone at the top. 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